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RISC-V Bit-manipulation A, B, C and S Extensions , 1.0.0 2021/06/12

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This document is released under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

It describes the BitManip Zba, Zbb, Zbc and Zbs extensions being submitted for public review.

Acknowledgments

Contributors to this specification (in alphabetical order) include:
Jacob Bachmeyer, Allen Baum, Ari Ben, Alex Bradbury, Steven Braeger, Rogier Brussee, Michael Clark, Ken Dockser, Paul Donahue, Dennis Ferguson, Fabian Giesen, John Hauser, Robert Henry, Bruce Hoult, Po-wei Huang, Ben Marshall, Rex McCrary, Lee Moore, Jiří Moravec, Samuel Neves, Markus Oberhumer, Christopher Olson, Nils Pipenbrinck, Joseph Rahmeh, Xue Saw, Tommy Thorn, Philipp Tomsich, Avishai Tvila, Andrew Waterman, Thomas Wicki, and Claire Wolf.

We express our gratitude to everyone that contributed to, reviewed or improved this specification through their comments and questions.

Bit-manipulation a, b, c and s extensions grouped for public review and ratification

The bit-manipulation (bitmanip) extension collection is comprised of several component extensions to the base RISC-V architecture that are intended to provide some combination of code size reduction, performance improvement, and energy reduction. While the instructions are intended to have general use, some instructions are more useful in some domains than others. Hence, several smaller bitmanip extensions are provided, rather than one large extension. Each of these smaller extensions is grouped by common function and use case, and each of which has its own Zb*-extension name.

Each bitmanip extension includes a group of several bitmanip instructions that have similar purposes and that can often share the same logic. Some instructions are available in only one extension while others are available in several. The instructions have mnemonics and encodings that are independent of the extensions in which they appear. Thus, when implementing extensions with overlapping instructions, there is no redundancy is logic or encoding.

The bitmanip extensions are defined for RV32 and RV64. Most of the instructions are expected to be forward compatible with RV128. While the shift-immediate instructions are defined to have at most a 6-bit immediate field, a 7th bit is available in the encoding space should this be needed for RV128.

Word Instructions

The bitmanip extension follows the convention in RV64 that w-suffixed instructions (without a dot before the w) ignore the upper 32 bits of their inputs, operate on the least-significant 32-bits as signed values and produce a 32-bit signed result that is sign-extended to XLEN.

Bitmanip instructions with the suffix .uw have one operand that is an unsigned 32-bit value that is extracted from the least significant 32 bits of the specified register. Other than that, these perform full XLEN operations.

Bitmanip instructions with the suffix .b, .h and .w only look at the least significant 8-bits, 16-bits and 32-bits of the input (respectively) and produce an XLEN-wide result that is sign-extended or zero-extended, based on specific instruction.

Pseudocode for instruction semantics

The semantics of each instruction in Instructions (in alphabetical order) is expressed in a SAIL-like syntax.

1. Extensions

The first group of bitmanip extensions to be release for Public Review are:

Below is a list of all of the instructions (and pseudoinstructions) that are included in these extensions along with their specific mapping:

RV32 RV64 Mnemonic Instruction Zba Zbb Zbc Zbs

X

add.uw rd, rs1, rs2

Add unsigned word

X

X

X

andn rd, rs1, rs2

AND with inverted operand

X

X

X

clmul rd, rs1, rs2

Carry-less multiply (low-part)

X

X

X

clmulh rd, rs1, rs2

Carry-less multiply (high-part)

X

X

X

clmulr rd, rs1, rs2

Carry-less multiply (reversed)

X

X

X

clz rd, rs

Count leading zero bits

X

X

clzw rd, rs

Count leading zero bits in word

X

X

X

cpop rd, rs

Count set bits

X

X

cpopw rd, rs

Count set bits in word

X

X

X

ctz rd, rs

Count trailing zero bits

X

X

ctzw rd, rs

Count trailing zero bits in word

X

X

X

max rd, rs1, rs2

Maximum

X

X

X

maxu rd, rs1, rs2

Unsigned maximum

X

X

X

min rd, rs1, rs2

Minimum

X

X

X

minu rd, rs1, rs2

Unsigned minimum

X

X

X

orc.b rd, rs1, rs2

Bitwise OR-Combine, byte granule

X

X

X

orn rd, rs1, rs2

OR with inverted operand

X

X

X

rev8_rd_, rs

Byte-reverse register

X

X

X

rol rd, rs1, rs2

Rotate left (Register)

X

X

rolw rd, rs1, rs2

Rotate Left Word (Register)

X

X

X

ror rd, rs1, rs2

Rotate right (Register)

X

X

X

rori rd, rs1, shamt

Rotate right (Immediate)

X

X

roriw rd, rs1, shamt

Rotate right Word (Immediate)

X

X

rorw rd, rs1, rs2

Rotate right Word (Register)

X

X

X

bclr rd, rs1, rs2

Single-Bit Clear (Register)

X

X

X

bclri rd, rs1, imm

Single-Bit Clear (Immediate)

X

X

X

bext rd, rs1, rs2

Single-Bit Extract (Register)

X

X

X

bexti rd, rs1, imm

Single-Bit Extract (Immediate)

X

X

X

binv rd, rs1, rs2

Single-Bit Invert (Register)

X

X

X

binvi rd, rs1, imm

Single-Bit Invert (Immediate)

X

X

X

bset rd, rs1, rs2

Single-Bit Set (Register)

X

X

X

bseti rd, rs1, imm

Single-Bit Set (Immediate)

X

X

X

sext.b rd, rs

Sign-extend byte

X

X

X

sext.h rd, rs

Sign-extend halfword

X

X

X

sh1add rd, rs1, rs2

Shift left by 1 and add

X

X

sh1add.uw rd, rs1, rs2

Shift unsigned word left by 1 and add

X

X

X

sh2add rd, rs1, rs2

Shift left by 2 and add

X

X

sh2add.uw rd, rs1, rs2

Shift unsigned word left by 2 and add

X

X

X

sh3add rd, rs2, rs2

Shift left by 3 and add

X

X

sh3add.uw rd, rs1, rs2

Shift unsigned word left by 3 and add

X

X

slli.uw rd, rs1, imm

Shift-left unsigned word (Immediate)

X

X

X

xnor rd, rs1, rs2

Exclusive NOR

X

X

X

zext.h rd, rs

Zero-extend halfword

X

1.1. Zba extension

The Zba extension is frozen.

The Zba instructions can be used to accelerate the generation of addresses that index into arrays of basic types (halfword, word, doubleword) using both unsigned word-sized and XLEN-sized indices: a shifted index is added to a base address.

The shift and add instructions to a left shift of 1, 2, or 3 because these are commonly found in real-world code and because they can be implemented with a minimal amount of additional hardware beyond that of the simple adder. This avoids lengthening the critical path in implementations.

While the shift and add instructions are limited to a maximum left shift of 3, the slli instruction (from the base ISA) can be used to perform similar shifts for indexing into arrays of wider elements. The slli.uw — added in this sub extension — can be used when the index is to be interpreted as an unsigned word.

The following instructions comprise the Zba extension:

RV32 RV64 Mnemonic Instruction

add.uw rd, rs1, rs2

Add unsigned word

sh1add rd, rs1, rs2

Shift left by 1 and add

sh1add.uw rd, rs1, rs2

Shift unsigned word left by 1 and add

sh2add rd, rs1, rs2

Shift left by 2 and add

sh2add.uw rd, rs1, rs2

Shift unsigned word left by 2 and add

sh3add rd, rs2, rs2

Shift left by 3 and add

sh3add.uw rd, rs1, rs2

Shift unsigned word left by 3 and add

slli.uw rd, rs1, imm

Shift-left unsigned word (Immediate)

1.2. Zbb: Basic bit-manipulation

The Zbb extension is frozen.

1.2.1. Logical with negate

RV32 RV64 Mnemonic Instruction

andn rd, rs1, rs2

AND with inverted operand

orn rd, rs1, rs2

OR with inverted operand

xnor rd, rs1, rs2

Exclusive NOR

Implementation Hint

The Logical with Negate instructions can be implemented by inverting the rs2 inputs to the base-required AND, OR, and XOR logic instructions. In some implementations, the inverter on rs2 used for subtraction can be reused for this purpose.

1.2.2. Count leading/training zero bits

RV32 RV64 Mnemonic Instruction

clz rd, rs

Count leading zero bits

clzw rd, rs

Count leading zero bits in word

ctz rd, rs

Count trailing zero bits

ctzw rd, rs

Count trailing zero bits in word

1.2.3. Count population

These instructions count the number of set bits (1-bits). This is also commonly referred to as population count.

RV32 RV64 Mnemonic Instruction

cpop rd, rs

Count set bits

cpopw rd, rs

Count set bits in word

1.2.4. Integer minimum/maximum

The integer minimum/maximum instructions are arithmetic R-type instructions that returns the smaller/larger of two operands.

RV32 RV64 Mnemonic Instruction

max rd, rs1, rs2

Maximum

maxu rd, rs1, rs2

Unsigned maximum

min rd, rs1, rs2

Minimum

minu rd, rs1, rs2

Unsigned minimum

1.2.5. Sign- and zero-extension

These instructions perform the sign-extension or zero-extension of the least significant 8 bits, 16 bits or 32 bits of the source register.

These instructions replace the generalized idioms slli rD,rS,(XLEN-<size>) + srli (for zero-extension) or slli + srai (for sign-extension) for the sign-extension of 8-bit and 16-bit quantities, and for the zero-extension of 16-bit and 32-bit quantities.

RV32 RV64 Mnemonic Instruction

sext.b rd, rs

Sign-extend byte

sext.h rd, rs

Sign-extend halfword

zext.h rd, rs

Zero-extend halfword

1.3. Bitwise rotation

Bitwise rotation instructions are similar to the shift-logical operations from the base spec. However, where the shift-logical instructions shift in zeros, the rotate instructions shift in the bits that were shifted out of the other side of the value. Such operations are also referred to as ‘circular shifts’.

RV32 RV64 Mnemonic Instruction

rol rd, rs1, rs2

Rotate left (Register)

rolw rd, rs1, rs2

Rotate Left Word (Register)

ror rd, rs1, rs2

Rotate right (Register)

rori rd, rs1, shamt

Rotate right (Immediate)

roriw rd, rs1, shamt

Rotate right Word (Immediate)

rorw rd, rs1, rs2

Rotate right Word (Register)

Architecture Explanation

The rotate instructions were included to replace a common four-instruction sequence to achieve the same effect (neg; sll/srl; srl/sll; or)

1.3.1. OR Combine

orc.b sets the bits of each byte in the result rd to all zeros if no bit within the respective byte of rs is set, or to all ones if any bit within the respective byte of rs is set.

The intended use-case are string-processing functions, like strlen and strcpy, which can utilize orc.b for testing for zero bytes, and counting trailing non-zero bytes in a word.

RV32 RV64 Mnemonic Instruction

orc.b rd, rs

Bitwise OR-Combine, byte granule

1.3.2. Byte-reverse

This instruction reverses the byte-ordering in a register.

RV32 RV64 Mnemonic Instruction

rev8 rd, rs

Byte-reverse register

1.4. Zbc: Carry-less multiplication

The Zbc extension is frozen.

Carry-less multiplication is the multiplication in the polynomial ring over GF(2).

clmul produces the lower half of the carry-less product and clmulh produces the upper half of the 2✕XLEN carry-less product.

clmulr produces bits 2✕XLEN−2:XLEN-1 of the 2✕XLEN carry-less product. That means clmulh is equivalent to clmulr followed by a 1-bit right shift. (The MSB of a clmulh result is always zero.)

RV32 RV64 Mnemonic Instruction

clmul rd, rs1, rs2

Carry-less multiply (low-part)

clmulh rd, rs1, rs2

Carry-less multiply (high-part)

clmulr rd, rs1, rs2

Carry-less multiply (reversed)

1.5. Zbs: Single-bit instructions

The Zbs extension is frozen.

The single-bit instructions provide a mechanism to set, clear, invert, or extract a single bit in a register. The bit is specified by its index.

RV32 RV64 Mnemonic Instruction

X

X

bclr rd, rs1, rs2

Single-Bit Clear (Register)

X

X

bclri rd, rs1, imm

Single-Bit Clear (Immediate)

X

X

bext rd, rs1, rs2

Single-Bit Extract (Register)

X

X

bexti rd, rs1, imm

Single-Bit Extract (Immediate)

X

X

binv rd, rs1, rs2

Single-Bit Invert (Register)

X

X

binvi rd, rs1, imm

Single-Bit Invert (Immediate)

X

X

bset rd, rs1, rs2

Single-Bit Set (Register)

X

X

bseti rd, rs1, imm

Single-Bit Set (Immediate)

2. Instructions (in alphabetical order)

2.1. add.uw

Synopsis

Add unsigned word

Mnemonic

add.uw rd, rs1, rs2

Pseudoinstructions

zext.w rd, rs1 → add.uw rd, rs1, zero

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction performs an XLEN-wide addition between rs2 and the zero-extended least-significant word of rs1.

Operation
let base = X(rs2);
let index = EXTZ(X(rs1)[31..0]);

X(rd) = base + index;
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zba (Address generation instructions)

0.93

Frozen

2.2. andn

Synopsis

AND with inverted operand

Mnemonic

andn rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction performs the bitwise logical AND operation between rs1 and the bitwise inversion of rs2.

Operation
X(rd) = X(rs1) & ~X(rs2);
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbb (Basic bit-manipulation)

0.93

Frozen

2.3. bclr

Synopsis

Single-Bit Clear (Register)

Mnemonic

bclr rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction returns rs1 with a single bit cleared at the index specified in rs2. The index is read from the lower log2(XLEN) bits of rs2.

Operation
let index = X(rs2) & (XLEN - 1);
X(rd) = X(rs1) & ~(1 << index)
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbs (Single-bit instructions)

0.93

Frozen

2.4. bclri

Synopsis

Single-Bit Clear (Immediate)

Mnemonic

bclri rd, rs1, shamt

Encoding (RV32)
Diagram
Encoding (RV64)
Diagram
Description

This instruction returns rs1 with a single bit cleared at the index specified in shamt. The index is read from the lower log2(XLEN) bits of shamt. For RV32, the encodings corresponding to shamt[5]=1 are reserved.

Operation
let index = shamt & (XLEN - 1);
X(rd) = X(rs1) & ~(1 << index)
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbs (Single-bit instructions)

0.93

Frozen

2.5. bext

Synopsis

Single-Bit Extract (Register)

Mnemonic

bext rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction returns a single bit extracted from rs1 at the index specified in rs2. The index is read from the lower log2(XLEN) bits of rs2.

Operation
let index = X(rs2) & (XLEN - 1);
X(rd) = (X(rs1) >> index) & 1;
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbs (Single-bit instructions)

0.93

Frozen

2.6. bexti

Synopsis

Single-Bit Extract (Immediate)

Mnemonic

bexti rd, rs1, shamt

Encoding (RV32)
Diagram
Encoding (RV64)
Diagram
Description

This instruction returns a single bit extracted from rs1 at the index specified in rs2. The index is read from the lower log2(XLEN) bits of shamt. For RV32, the encodings corresponding to shamt[5]=1 are reserved.

Operation
let index = shamt & (XLEN - 1);
X(rd) = (X(rs1) >> index) & 1;
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbs (Single-bit instructions)

0.93

Frozen

2.7. binv

Synopsis

Single-Bit Invert (Register)

Mnemonic

binv rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction returns rs1 with a single bit inverted at the index specified in rs2. The index is read from the lower log2(XLEN) bits of rs2.

Operation
let index = X(rs2) & (XLEN - 1);
X(rd) = X(rs1) ^ (1 << index)
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbs (Single-bit instructions)

0.93

Frozen

2.8. binvi

Synopsis

Single-Bit Invert (Immediate)

Mnemonic

binvi rd, rs1, shamt

Encoding (RV32)
Diagram
Encoding (RV64)
Diagram
Description

This instruction returns rs1 with a single bit inverted at the index specified in shamt. The index is read from the lower log2(XLEN) bits of shamt. For RV32, the encodings corresponding to shamt[5]=1 are reserved.

Operation
let index = shamt & (XLEN - 1);
X(rd) = X(rs1) ^ (1 << index)
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbs (Single-bit instructions)

0.93

Frozen

2.9. bset

Synopsis

Single-Bit Set (Register)

Mnemonic

bset rd, rs1,rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction returns rs1 with a single bit set at the index specified in rs2. The index is read from the lower log2(XLEN) bits of rs2.

Operation
let index = X(rs2) & (XLEN - 1);
X(rd) = X(rs1) | (1 << index)
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbs (Single-bit instructions)

0.93

Frozen

2.10. bseti

Synopsis

Single-Bit Set (Immediate)

Mnemonic

bseti rd, rs1,shamt

Encoding (RV32)
Diagram
Encoding (RV64)
Diagram
Description

This instruction returns rs1 with a single bit set at the index specified in shamt. The index is read from the lower log2(XLEN) bits of shamt. For RV32, the encodings corresponding to shamt[5]=1 are reserved.

Operation
let index = shamt & (XLEN - 1);
X(rd) = X(rs1) | (1 << index)
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbs (Single-bit instructions)

0.93

Frozen

2.11. clmul

Synopsis

Carry-less multiply (low-part)

Mnemonic

clmul rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

clmul produces the lower half of the 2·XLEN carry-less product.

Operation
let rs1_val = X(rs1);
let rs2_val = X(rs2);
let output : xlenbits = 0;

foreach (i from 0 to xlen by 1) {
   output = if   ((rs2_val >> i) & 1)
            then output ^ (rs1_val << i);
	    else output;
}

X[rd] = output
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbc (Carry-less multiplication)

0.93

Frozen

2.12. clmulh

Synopsis

Carry-less multiply (high-part)

Mnemonic

clmulh rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

clmulh produces the upper half of the 2·XLEN carry-less product.

Operation
let rs1_val = X(rs1);
let rs2_val = X(rs2);
let output : xlenbits = 0;

foreach (i from 1 to xlen by 1) {
   output = if   ((rs2_val >> i) & 1)
            then output ^ (rs1_val >> (xlen - i));
	    else output;
}

X[rd] = output
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbc (Carry-less multiplication)

0.93

Frozen

2.13. clmulr

Synopsis

Carry-less multiply (reversed)

Mnemonic

clmulr rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

clmulr produces bits 2·XLEN−2:XLEN-1 of the 2·XLEN carry-less product.

Operation
let rs1_val = X(rs1);
let rs2_val = X(rs2);
let output : xlenbits = 0;

foreach (i from 0 to (xlen - 1) by 1) {
   output = if   ((rs2_val >> i) & 1)
            then output ^ (rs1_val >> (xlen - i - 1));
	    else output;
}

X[rd] = output
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbc (Carry-less multiplication)

0.93

Frozen

2.14. clz

Synopsis

Count leading zero bits

Mnemonic

clz rd, rs

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction counts the number of 0’s before the first 1, starting at the most-significant bit (i.e., XLEN-1) and progressing to bit 0. Accordingly, if the input is 0, the output is XLEN, and if the most-significant bit of the input is a 1, the output is 0.

Operation
val HighestSetBit : forall ('N : Int), 'N >= 0. bits('N) -> int

function HighestSetBit x = {
  foreach (i from (xlen - 1) to 0 by 1 in dec)
    if [x[i]] == 0b1 then return(i) else ();
  return -1;
}

let rs = X(rs);
X[rd] = (xlen - 1) - HighestSetBit(rs);
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbb (Basic bit-manipulation)

0.93

Frozen

2.15. clzw

Synopsis

Count leading zero bits in word

Mnemonic

clzw rd, rs

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction counts the number of 0’s before the first 1 starting at bit 31 and progressing to bit 0. Accordingly, if the least-significant word is 0, the output is 32, and if the most-significant bit of the word (i.e., bit 31) is a 1, the output is 0.

Operation
val HighestSetBit32 : forall ('N : Int), 'N >= 0. bits('N) -> int

function HighestSetBit32 x = {
  foreach (i from 31 to 0 by 1 in dec)
    if [x[i]] == 0b1 then return(i) else ();
  return -1;
}

let rs = X(rs);
X[rd] = 31 - HighestSetBit(rs);
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbb (Basic bit-manipulation)

0.93

Frozen

2.16. cpop

Synopsis

Count set bits

Mnemonic

cpop rd, rs

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instructions counts the number of 1’s (i.e., set bits) in the source register.

Operation
let bitcount = 0;
let rs = X(rs);

foreach (i from 0 to (xlen - 1) in inc)
    if rs[i] == 0b1 then bitcount = bitcount + 1 else ();

X[rd] = bitcount
Software Hint

This operations is known as population count, popcount, sideways sum, bit summation, or Hamming weight.

The GCC builtin function __builtin_popcount (unsigned int x) is implemented by cpop on RV32 and by cpopw on RV64. The GCC builtin function __builtin_popcountl (unsigned long x) for LP64 is implemented by cpop on RV64.

Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbb (Basic bit-manipulation)

0.93

Frozen

2.17. cpopw

Synopsis

Count set bits in word

Mnemonic

cpopw rd, rs

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instructions counts the number of 1’s (i.e., set bits) in the least-significant word of the source register.

Operation
let bitcount = 0;
let val = X(rs);

foreach (i from 0 to 31 in inc)
    if val[i] == 0b1 then bitcount = bitcount + 1 else ();

X[rd] = bitcount
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbb (Basic bit-manipulation)

0.93

Frozen

2.18. ctz

Synopsis

Count trailing zeros

Mnemonic

ctz rd, rs

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction counts the number of 0’s before the first 1, starting at the least-significant bit (i.e., 0) and progressing to the most-significant bit (i.e., XLEN-1). Accordingly, if the input is 0, the output is XLEN, and if the least-significant bit of the input is a 1, the output is 0.

Operation
val LowestSetBit : forall ('N : Int), 'N >= 0. bits('N) -> int

function LowestSetBit x = {
  foreach (i from 0 to (xlen - 1) by 1 in dec)
    if [x[i]] == 0b1 then return(i) else ();
  return xlen;
}

let rs = X(rs);
X[rd] = LowestSetBit(rs);
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbb (Basic bit-manipulation)

0.93

Frozen

2.19. ctzw

Synopsis

Count trailing zero bits in word

Mnemonic

ctzw rd, rs

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction counts the number of 0’s before the first 1, starting at the least-significant bit (i.e., 0) and progressing to the most-significant bit of the least-significant word (i.e., 31). Accordingly, if the least-significant word is 0, the output is 32, and if the least-significant bit of the input is a 1, the output is 0.

Operation
val LowestSetBit32 : forall ('N : Int), 'N >= 0. bits('N) -> int

function LowestSetBit32 x = {
  foreach (i from 0 to 31 by 1 in dec)
    if [x[i]] == 0b1 then return(i) else ();
  return 32;
}

let rs = X(rs);
X[rd] = LowestSetBit32(rs);
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbb (Basic bit-manipulation)

0.93

Frozen

2.20. max

Synopsis

Maximum

Mnemonic

max rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction returns the larger of two signed integers.

Operation
let rs1_val = X(rs1);
let rs2_val = X(rs2);

let result = if   rs1_val <_s rs2_val
    	     then rs2_val
	     else rs1_val;

X(rd) = result;
Software Hint

Calculating the absolute value of a signed integer can be performed using the following sequence: neg rD,rS followed by max rD,rS,rD. When using this common sequence, it is suggested that they are scheduled with no intervening instructions so that implementations that are so optimized can fuse them together.

Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbb (Basic bit-manipulation)

0.93

Frozen

2.21. maxu

Synopsis

Unsigned maximum

Mnemonic

maxu rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction returns the larger of two unsigned integers.

Operation
let rs1_val = X(rs1);
let rs2_val = X(rs2);

let result = if   rs1_val <_u rs2_val
    	     then rs2_val
	     else rs1_val;

X(rd) = result;
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zbb (Basic bit-manipulation)

0.93

Frozen

2.22. min

Synopsis

Minimum

Mnemonic

min rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction returns the smaller of two signed integers.

Operation
let rs1_val = X(rs1);
let rs2_val = X(rs2);

let result = if   rs1_val <_s rs2_val
    	     then rs1_val
	     else rs2_val;

X(rd) = result;
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.23. minu

Synopsis

Unsigned minimum

Mnemonic

minu rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction returns the smaller of two unsigned integers.

Operation
let rs1_val = X(rs1);
let rs2_val = X(rs2);

let result = if   rs1_val <_u rs2_val
    	     then rs1_val
	     else rs2_val;

X(rd) = result;
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.24. orc.b

Synopsis

Bitwise OR-Combine, byte granule

Mnemonic

orc.b rd, rs

Encoding
Diagram
Description

Combines the bits within every byte through a reciprocal bitwise logical OR. This sets the bits of each byte in the result rd to all zeros if no bit within the respective byte of rs is set, or to all ones if any bit within the respective byte of rs is set.

Operation
let input = X(rs);
let output : xlenbits = 0;
let j = xlen;

foreach (i from 0 to xlen by 8) {
   output[(i + 7)..i] = if   input[(i - 7)..i] == 0
                        then 0b00000000
                        else 0b11111111;
}

X[rd] = output;
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.25. orn

Synopsis

OR with inverted operand

Mnemonic

orn rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction performs the bitwise logical AND operation between rs1 and the bitwise inversion of rs2.

Operation
X(rd) = X(rs1) | ~X(rs2);
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.26. rev8

Synopsis

Byte-reverse register

Mnemonic

rev8 rd, rs

Encoding (RV32)
Diagram
Encoding (RV64)
Diagram
Description

This instruction reverses the order of the bytes in a register.

Operation
let input = X(rs);
let output : xlenbits = 0;
let j = xlen;

foreach (i from 0 to xlen by 8) {
   output[i..(i + 7)] = input[(j - 7)..j];
   j = j - 8;
}

X[rd] = output
Note

The rev8 mnemonic corresponds to different instruction encodings in RV32 and RV64.

Software Hint

The byte-reverse operation is only available for the full register width. To emulate word-sized and halfword-sized byte-reversal, perform a rev8 rd,rs followed by a srai rd,rd.

Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.27. rol

Synopsis

Rotate Left (Register)

Mnemonic

rol rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction performs a rotate left of rs1 by the amount in least-significant log2(XLEN) bits of rs2.

Operation
let shamt = if   xlen == 32
    	    then X(rs2)[4..0]
	    else X(rs2)[5..0];
let result = (X(rs1) << shamt) | (X(rs2) >> (xlen - shamt));

X(rd) = result;
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.28. rolw

Synopsis

Rotate Left Word (Register)

Mnemonic

rolw rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction performs a rotate left on the least-significant word of rs1 by the amount in least-significant 5 bits of rs2. The resulting word value is sign-extended by copying bit 31 to all of the more-significant bits.

Operation
let rs1 = EXTZ(X(rs1)[31..0])
let shamt = X(rs2)[4..0];
let result = (rs1 << shamt) | (rs1 >> (32 - shamt));
X(rd) = EXTS(result);
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.29. ror

Synopsis

Rotate Right

Mnemonic

ror rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction performs a rotate right of rs1 by the amount in least-significant log2(XLEN) bits of rs2.

Operation
let shamt = if   xlen == 32
    	    then X(rs2)[4..0]
	    else X(rs2)[5..0];
let result = (X(rs1) >> shamt) | (X(rs2) << (xlen - shamt));

X(rd) = result;
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.30. rori

Synopsis

Rotate Right (Immediate)

Mnemonic

rori rd, rs1, shamt

Encoding (RV32)
Diagram
Encoding (RV64)
Diagram
Description

This instruction performs a rotate right of rs1 by the amount in the least-significant log2(XLEN) bits of shamt. For RV32, the encodings corresponding to shamt[5]=1 are reserved.

Operation
let shamt = if   xlen == 32
    	    then shamt[4..0]
	    else shamt[5..0];
let result = (X(rs1) >> shamt) | (X(rs2) << (xlen - shamt));

X(rd) = result;
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.31. roriw

Synopsis

Rotate Right Word by Immediate

Mnemonic

roriw rd, rs1, shamt

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction performs a rotate right on the least-significant word of rs1 by the amount in the least-significant log2(XLEN) bits of shamt. The resulting word value is sign-extended by copying bit 31 to all of the more-significant bits.

Operation
let rs1 = EXTZ(X(rs1)[31..0];
let result = (rs1 >> shamt[4..0]) | (X(rs1) << (32 - shamt[4..0]));
X(rd) = EXTS(result[31..0]);
Included in
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2.32. rorw

Synopsis

Rotate Right Word (Register)

Mnemonic

rorw rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction performs a rotate right on the least-significant word of rs1 by the amount in least-significant 5 bits of rs2. The resultant word is sign-extended by copying bit 31 to all of the more-significant bits.

Operation
let rs1 = EXTZ(X(rs1)[31..0])
let shamt = X(rs2)[4..0];
let result = (rs1 >> shamt) | (rs1 << (32 - shamt));
X(rd) = EXTS(result);
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.33. sext.b

Synopsis

Sign-extend byte

Mnemonic

sext.b rd, rs

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction sign-extends the least-significant byte in the source to XLEN by copying the most-significant bit in the byte (i.e., bit 7) to all of the more-significant bits.

Operation
X(rd) = EXTS(X(rs)[7..0]);
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2.34. sext.h

Synopsis

Sign-extend halfword

Mnemonic

sext.h rd, rs

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction sign-extends the least-significant halfword in rs to XLEN by copying the most-significant bit in the halfword (i.e., bit 15) to all of the more-significant bits.

Operation
X(rd) = EXTS(X(rs)[15..0]);
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2.35. sh1add

Synopsis

Shift left by 1 and add

Mnemonic

sh1add rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction shifts rs1 to the left by 1 bit and adds it to rs2.

Operation
X(rd) = X(rs2) + (X(rs1) << 1);
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.36. sh1add.uw

Synopsis

Shift unsigned word left by 1 and add

Mnemonic

sh1add.uw rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction performs an XLEN-wide addition of two addends. The first addend is rs2. The second addend is the unsigned value formed by extracting the least-significant word of rs1 and shifting it left by 1 place.

Operation
let base = X(rs2);
let index = EXTZ(X(rs1)[31..0]);

X(rd) = base + (index << 1);
Included in
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2.37. sh2add

Synopsis

Shift left by 2 and add

Mnemonic

sh2add rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction shifts rs1 to the left by 2 places and adds it to rs2.

Operation
X(rd) = X(rs2) + (X(rs1) << 2);
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.38. sh2add.uw

Synopsis

Shift unsigned word left by 2 and add

Mnemonic

sh2add.uw rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction performs an XLEN-wide addition of two addends. The first addend is rs2. The second addend is the unsigned value formed by extracting the least-significant word of rs1 and shifting it left by 2 places.

Operation
let base = X(rs2);
let index = EXTZ(X(rs1)[31..0]);

X(rd) = base + (index << 2);
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2.39. sh3add

Synopsis

Shift left by 3 and add

Mnemonic

sh3add rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction shifts rs1 to the left by 3 places and adds it to rs2.

Operation
X(rd) = X(rs2) + (X(rs1) << 3);
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

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2.40. sh3add.uw

Synopsis

Shift unsigned word left by 3 and add

Mnemonic

sh3add.uw rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction performs an XLEN-wide addition of two addends. The first addend is rs2. The second addend is the unsigned value formed by extracting the least-significant word of rs1 and shifting it left by 3 places.

Operation
let base = X(rs2);
let index = EXTZ(X(rs1)[31..0]);

X(rd) = base + (index << 3);
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2.41. slli.uw

Synopsis

Shift-left unsigned word (Immediate)

Mnemonic

slli.uw rd, rs1, shamt

Encoding
Diagram
Description

This instruction takes the least-significant word of rs1, zero-extends it, and shifts it left by the immediate.

Operation
X(rd) = (EXTZ(X(rs)[31..0]) << shamt);
Included in
Extension Minimum version Lifecycle state

Zba (Address generation instructions)

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Architecture Explanation

This instruction is the same as slli with zext.w performed on rs1 before shifting.

2.42. xnor

Synopsis

Exclusive NOR

Mnemonic

xnor rd, rs1, rs2

Encoding