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RISC-V Instruction Set Manual, Volume I: RISC-V User-Level ISA , 20191214- December 2019

3 “Zifencei” Instruction-Fetch Fence, Version 2.0

This chapter defines the “Zifencei” extension, which includes the FENCE.I instruction that provides explicit synchronization between writes to instruction memory and instruction fetches on the same hart. Currently, this instruction is the only standard mechanism to ensure that stores visible to a hart will also be visible to its instruction fetches.

We considered but did not include a “store instruction word” instruction (as in MAJC [majc])). JIT compilers may generate a large trace of instructions before a single FENCE.I, and amortize any instruction cache snooping/invalidation overhead by writing translated instructions to memory regions that are known not to reside in the I-cache.

The FENCE.I instruction was designed to support a wide variety of implementations. A simple implementation can flush the local instruction cache and the instruction pipeline when the FENCE.I is executed. A more complex implementation might snoop the instruction (data) cache on every data (instruction) cache miss, or use an inclusive unified private L2 cache to invalidate lines from the primary instruction cache when they are being written by a local store instruction. If instruction and data caches are kept coherent in this way, or if the memory system consists of only uncached RAMs, then just the fetch pipeline needs to be flushed at a FENCE.I.

The FENCE.I instruction was previously part of the base I instruction set. Two main issues are driving moving this out of the mandatory base, although at time of writing it is still the only standard method for maintaining instruction-fetch coherence.

First, it has been recognized that on some systems, FENCE.I will be expensive to implement and alternate mechanisms are being discussed in the memory model task group. In particular, for designs that have an incoherent instruction cache and an incoherent data cache, or where the instruction cache refill does not snoop a coherent data cache, both caches must be completely flushed when a FENCE.I instruction is encountered. This problem is exacerbated when there are multiple levels of I and D cache in front of a unified cache or outer memory system.

Second, the instruction is not powerful enough to make available at user level in a Unix-like operating system environment. The FENCE.I only synchronizes the local hart, and the OS can reschedule the user hart to a different physical hart after the FENCE.I. This would require the OS to execute an additional FENCE.I as part of every context migration. For this reason, the standard Linux ABI has removed FENCE.I from user-level and now requires a system call to maintain instruction-fetch coherence, which allows the OS to minimize the number of FENCE.I executions required on current systems and provides forward-compatibility with future improved instruction-fetch coherence mechanisms.

Future approaches to instruction-fetch coherence under discussion include providing more restricted versions of FENCE.I that only target a given address specified in rs1, and/or allowing software to use an ABI that relies on machine-mode cache-maintenance operations.


The FENCE.I instruction is used to synchronize the instruction and data streams. RISC-V does not guarantee that stores to instruction memory will be made visible to instruction fetches on a RISC-V hart until that hart executes a FENCE.I instruction. A FENCE.I instruction ensures that a subsequent instruction fetch on a RISC-V hart will see any previous data stores already visible to the same RISC-V hart. FENCE.I does not ensure that other RISC-V harts’ instruction fetches will observe the local hart’s stores in a multiprocessor system. To make a store to instruction memory visible to all RISC-V harts, the writing hart has to execute a data FENCE before requesting that all remote RISC-V harts execute a FENCE.I.

The unused fields in the FENCE.I instruction, imm[11:0], rs1, and rd, are reserved for finer-grain fences in future extensions. For forward compatibility, base implementations shall ignore these fields, and standard software shall zero these fields.

Because FENCE.I only orders stores with a hart’s own instruction fetches, application code should only rely upon FENCE.I if the application thread will not be migrated to a different hart. The EEI can provide mechanisms for efficient multiprocessor instruction-stream synchronization.